Vrancea is attested in a Latin document, a letter dated July 2, 1431,
where the name is spelled VARANCHA. Historians and researchers hold
the word belonged in the Thraco-Dacian lexical stock, VRAN meaning
forest/mountain. Maybe this explains why the time’s writings called
Vrancea “The Forest-rich Land” or “The Black Land”. Vrancea is the
original hearth of the poem of the Romanian’s ethnogenesis, the ballad
“Miorita” – a folk poetry heard by writer Alecu Russo in the mountain
village of Soveja in 1853, which he later included in a collection
of folk literary writings. The “Miorita” originating in Vrancea is
considered the archetype of the over 1,000 variants of the ballad
created in the course of time. Vrancea is a history-rich land. In
the modern age, it was the symbol of Moldovia’s and Wallachia’s Union
on January 24, 1859 that laid the groundwork of the Romanian state.
Focsani was the seat of the first institutions of the newborn unified
Romanian state – the Central Commission and the Court of Appeal. That’s
why the town is acknowledged as the first capital of the United Principalities.
Another historic landmark is the memorial house Ion Roata, an old
peasant and an elected member of the divan (a kind of parliament )
who was directly involved in the Union of the Principalities. During
World War One, in July-August 1917, Europe got its first victories
on Imperial Germany on the battlefields of Marasti and Marasesti,
here in this county. Those victories broke up the ground to the achievement
of the unitary nation-state on December 1, 1918. Vrancea is home to
the most important memorials and mausoleums honouring the blood sacrifice
of the World War One heroes – Marasti, Marasesti, Soveja and Focsani.
In token of reward for the war damage borne by the town of Marasesti,
the French government awarded it in 1919 the War Cross of France.
After the Union, Vrancea was a hub of throbbing spiritual and social
life. In the latter half of 20th century, progress in the economy,
urbanisation and cultural life of county localities became an obvious
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Vrancea county is located in the southeast zone of Romania; lying
at the bend of the Eastern Carpathians, it represents a genuine connecting
link between the three great historical provinces: Moldavia, Wallachia
and Transylvania. In point of area, it ranks the 30th among
Romania’s counties with 4,863 sqkm, while its rural area places it
on the seventh place. Its neighbours are Bacau county in the north,
Vaslui and Galati counties in the east, Buzau county in the southeast
and Covasna county in the west. Population density is 81 inhab/sqkm
(27th in the country). There are five towns: Focsani (100,000 inhabitants),
Adjud, Panciu, Marasesti and Odobesti. Vrancea county has 59 communes,
of which two are suburban, and 331 villages. The relief resembles
some huge steps that descend from west to east. The highest is the
Vrancea Mountains, made up of massifs whose height ranges from 960
to 1,783 m; next come the hills which rise from 350 m to 1,001 m;
the third is a flat plain that reaches the rivers Siret, Trotus and
Ramnic. The climate is continental, influenced by North and South
Europe air currents. Forests cover the mountains and hills, while
in the plain the sylvo-steppe vegetation is predominant. The most
active seismic region is located in Vrancea, the epicentre being in
the village of Vrancioaia. Forests, which cover about 38 per cent
of the area of Vrancea county, represent one of its main riches. Agriculture
is well developed; the total agricultural area stretches over 255,284
ha, of which arable land occupies 146,792 ha, vineyards over 35,000
ha, orchards 4,654 ha and forests 191,792 ha. One can easily see that
vineries not only hold the largest area of the county but also supply
its major product. There are 678 educational establishments (32nd
place), out of which 20 are high schools. There also exist 276 public
libraries (27th place), nine museums (23rd place) and four cinema
halls (23rd place).
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in the South-Eastern part of the Oriental Carpathians, the Vrancea
county is the connection between the three Romanian Lands: Moldavia,
Wallachia and Transylvania. Its first documentary mention is
on July, 2-nd, 1431 when it is named VARANCHA which means "the
forest land" or the black land. Its surface is of 4,863
sq.km. The population is of 393,400 inhabitants. The capital
city of this county is the municipality of Focsani with a population
of 100,000 inhabitants. The relief is in flight of steps from
West to East and consists in hills and mountain massives of
960 m to 1,783 m above sea level (the Goru Peak). This county
is crossed by the Siret, Putna, Zabala, Milcov, Susita, and
Rarunic Rivers. The climate is an Eastern-continental one and
influenced from North and South. The Vrancea county is the actives
seismic zone of Romania. The seismic epicenter is situated in
the village of Vrancioaia where there is a modem station of
seismology. A third part of the surface of this county is covered
by forests. In this county there is the biggest vineyard of
Romania which covers the hills and terraces with grape-vine.
Under the trade mark of Odobesti, Cotesti, Panciu, different
kinds of wine, cognac and champagne using French methods, brandy
and vermouth are made.
The Romanian history, culture and civilization are represented
- the Mera
Monastery - a fortified building built in 1685; it is the
only building built in Romania by the Cantemir family (patriots,
rulers and scholars).
- the Princely
cellar from Odobe5ti, built in 1839 where now there is one
of the richest collection of choise wine bottles in Romania.
belonging to the "Vincon" unit from Focsani.
- the wooden
church (in oak beams) in the village of Prisaca-Valea Sarii,
built in 1770 on the upper course of the Putna River.
- the Village
Museum is synthesis of the Vrancea's folk traditions, of agricol
folk and handcraft technics, custom and inhabited conditions
- is situated in the Crangul Petresti, 7 km far from Focsani.
- the Romanian
Heros Mausoleum dedicated to soldiers who died on the Marasesti-Marasti-Soveja-Focsani-Sud
front line, in the first World War.
one of the well-known rest and cure spas. It is known thanks
to its folk traditions. Here the "Miorita" ballad,
the poem of the ethnogenesis of the Romanian people, born.
The monuments of nature situated in this county are:
- the fire
from Andreiasu - emanations of gas with a permanent burning
at the surface (Andriesu is a mountain locality which is documentary
mentioned in August, 8th, 1445).
- the Putna
waterfall, 71 km far from Focsani, 76 m long, 14 m high, and
a flow of 9 cubic meters/sec.
- the Lepsa
trout station situated in the mountain village of Tulnici.
- the "Maior
Gheorghe Pastia" Theatre, an impressive European building
offered to Focsani's inhabitants by this officer in 1913.
Square in Focsani - a pile of buildings of historic and civic
evocation built in the '70. The Union Obelisk, a work of Romanian
sculptor Ion Jalea is artistically the landmark of Focsani,
a town considered as the first capital city of the United Principalities:
Moldavia, and Wallachia, on January, 24th, 1859.
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